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`呼喚一個新盟約’The Call to a New Covenant


[WOTS]
7/26/2018


`呼喚一個新盟約The Call to a New Covenant            7/29/2018

耶利米書Jeremiah 31:23-34

July 29, 2018, Session 9, Unit 1: Jeremiah/Lamentations

Worldwide Outreach Teaching School 賴美滿 校長

https://www.WorldwideOTS.org

 

 

前言Preface: 先知耶利米已警告以色列百姓的繼續反叛上帝,但他們仍選擇不服從。古猶太人被逐久久被困的疲勞,思想希望上帝送他們回家園。耶利米書第三十和三十一章是上帝對放逐者們安慰之歌。上帝將醫治其傷並送回家園。這應許如美麗的夢,使人愉快但雖然非真實。我們將瞭解聖經的基本教導是 “新約”。The prophets had warned the people of Israel what would happen if they continued to rebel against God, but they still chose disobedience. The Judean exiles spent long, weary years in captivity, wondering if God would ever return them to their homeland. Chapters 30 and 31 are songs of comfort from God to the exiles. He would heal their wounds and gather them back from the countries where He scattered them. Such promises were like a beautiful dream, pleasant but surely not real. But God’s words of restoration were real. We will understand the foundation of the Bible’s teaching on the “new covenant.” – Session outcome

Last Week: 已探究上帝如何設計與我們關係,和關切我們日日之決定能過好日子。We explored how God desires relationship with us and cares about the day-to-day decisions that make up daily life..

這週This Week: 我們將看到耶利米之預告這新盟約耶穌會帶來完成。We will examine Jeremiah’s prophecy of the new covenant that was brought to fulfillment by Jesus..

 

 

  1. The Dream of Returning Home Read Jeremiah 31:23-26,

23    This is what the LORD Almighty, the God of Israel, says: "When I bring them back from captivity, the people in the land of Judah and in its towns will once again use these words: 'The LORD bless you, O righteous dwelling, O sacred mountain.'

24    People will live together in Judah and all its towns--farmers and those who move about with their flocks.

25     I will refresh the weary and satisfy the faint."

26    At this I awoke and looked around. My sleep had been pleasant to me.

 

According to verse 26 Jeremiah had a pleasant dream in which God promised to return the exiles. It was not unusual for God to speak to prophets in a dream. The words of Yahweh were words of comfort. The exiles would return to the cities of Judah. The city of Jerusalem would again be God’s residence, a prosperous and sacred place. Farmers and shepherds often had conflicts over the use of the land. In God’s renewed Judah they would live together in peace. The exiles would travel by foot for months to return to Judah, The Judeans had God’s promise to return them to their homeland, if they remained faithful.

 

B. To Build and to Plant:

           Jeremiah 31:27-30,

27 "The days are coming," declares the LORD, "when I will plant the house of Israel and the house of Judah with the offspring of men and of animals.

28  Just as I watched over them to uproot and tear down, and to overthrow, destroy and bring disaster, so I will watch over them to build and to plant," declares the LORD.

29."In those days people will no longer say, 'The fathers have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set.

30 Instead, everyone will die for his own sin; whoever eats sour grapes--his own teeth will be set on edge.

From the commentary of the Faith Connection by Robert Branson, p.37: God called Jeremiah to be a prophet of doom, “to uproot and tear down, to destroy and overthrow,” but also “to build and to plant” (1:10). The time of destruction had come. Jerusalem with the temple was destroyed. The people were in exile. God had brought judgment upon them for their sins. They had learned the hard way that the God of mercy and grace is also the God of anger and justice when His people defy Him and break His commandments. Every nation needs to hear His word and keep it in order not to have to face His wrath.

Yet there would come a time “to build and to plant.” Israel had been taken into exile by the Assyrians in 720 BC and Judah by the Babylonians in 586 BC. God did not forget either of them. The people had been exiled and their domestic animal life have been devastated by the invading army. Jeremiah likens God to a farmer who scatters seed upon the soil. Only in this case He would “plant” people and animals in the kingdoms. Once again His people would thrive.

The Judeans, however, felt that they had been unjustly judged. They were being punished for their ancestors’ sins. They were innocent. This proverb (v. 29) continued to be repeated even in the days of Ezekiel (18:2). The people blame someone else. The Lord of Israel is a just God. He judges people individually and corporately for their sins, yet also is willing to forgive them, if they accept responsibility for their sins. He is a God who grants grace and mercy to those who acknowledge their disobedience and ask for forgiveness.

From the Commentary of NIV:         The people tried to blame God’s judgment on the sins of their fathers. One person’s sin does indeed affect other people, but all people are still held personally accountable for the sin in their own lives (Deuteronomy 24:16; Ezekiel 18:2).

C. A New Covemant Jeremiah 31:31-34,

31"The time is coming," declares the LORD, "when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah.

32 It will not be like the covenant I made with their forefathers when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they broke my covenant, though I was a husband to them, "declares the LORD.

33 "This is the covenant I will make with the house of Israel after that time," declares the LORD. "I will put my law in their minds and write it on their hearts. I will be their God, and they will be my people.

34 No longer will a man teach his neighbor, or a man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' because they will all know me, from the least of them to the greatest," declares the LORD. "For I will forgive their wickedness and will remember their sins no more."

 

God would write his law on their hearts rather than on tablets of stone, as he did the Ten Commandments. In 17:1 their sin was engraved on their hearts to that they wanted above all to disobey. This change seems to describe an experience very much like the new birth, with God taking the initiative. When we turn our lives over to God, he, by his Holy Spirit, builds into us the desire to obey him.

 

The old Covenant broken by the people; would be replaced by a new covenant. The foundation of this new covenant is Christ (Hebrews 8:6). It is revolutionary, involving not only Israel and Judah, but even the Gentiles. It offers a unique personal relationship with God himself, with his laws written on individuals’ hearts instead of on stone. Jeremiah looked forward to the day when Jesus would come to establish this covenant. But for us today, this covenant is here. We have the wonderful opportunity to make a fresh start and establish a permanent, personal relationship with God (29:11; 32:38-40). – Commentary from NIV.

Question: Read Jeremiah 31:31-34, then discuss the following

1. In what ways did the people break covenant with God? (worship of idols; broken relationship)

2. In what ways was the new covenant to be different or the same from God’s original covenant? (God gave the people the law which became the basis of the old covenant. This new covenant would come through belief in the sacrifice of God’s son.)

 

D. Conclusion:

 

The old covenant God made with His people required strict obedience to the Law. The new covenant promised that God will forgive sin and restore relationship with those whose hearts and lives are turned toward Him. Jesus Christ is the mediator of the new covenant, and His death on the cross is the foundation of the promise.

 

 

 

A. 預言四散的國民必回歸: 耶利米書31:23-26

23 萬軍之耶和華以色列的 神如此說、我使被擄之人歸回的時候、他們在猶大地和其中的城邑、必再這樣說、公義的居所阿、聖山哪、願耶和華賜福給你。

24 猶大和屬猶大城邑的人、農夫和放羊的人、要一同住在其中。

25 疲乏的人、我使他飽飫、愁煩的人、我使他知足。

26.先知說、我醒了、覺著睡得香甜。

 

 

 

跟據第 26句,先知耶利米有一個愉快的夢,夢中上帝已應允使流亡國外者回家;上帝對夢中的先知說話並不例外的。耶和華的話語是很愉悅舒緩的。流亡國外者能回猶大城 (古巴勒斯坦南部之一王國),耶路撒冷城再度成為上帝的子民,一個繁榮的聖地。農夫們和牧羊人在使用地上總是會碰到困難 ;在上帝的更新猶大城他們居住在一齊都很平安 流亡國外者步行幾個月回猶大城,如他們保有信心,這些猶太人是有上帝的應許回家園的

 

 

 

B. To Build and to Plant:

              耶利米書31:27-30,

  1. 耶和華說、日子將到、我要把人的種、和牲畜的種、播種在以色列家、和猶大家。
  2. 我先前怎樣留意將他們拔出、拆毀、毀壞、傾覆、苦害、也必照樣留意將他們建立、栽植.這是耶和華說的。
  3. 當那些日子、人不再說、父親喫了酸葡萄、兒子的牙酸倒了.
  4. 但各人必因自己的罪死亡、凡喫酸葡萄的、自己的牙必酸倒。

信心關聯, R.B. 的解經 p.37:

上帝呼差耶利米為命運的先知(尤指惡運的先知) 為要施行拔出、拆毀、毀壞、傾覆、又要建立栽植。” (耶利米書1:10). 那毀掉之時已過,耶路撒冷與廟堂已毀。百姓被逐,上帝已懲罰其罪,他們在辛苦中學到了上帝雖是仁愛和充滿恩典的神,但當其子民不認祂或不順從誡律時祂是位正義和審判的神。每個民族或國家都必聽祂的話,並記得不使上帝生氣。

 

的確有建立和裁植的時候。上帝並沒忘記以色列曾在720 BC被亞述人放逐和猶大在586 BC 被巴比倫人放逐。上帝並沒有忘記這兩次的放逐。子民和家畜的生存被敵人的軍隊劇烈壓制逐出,耶利米比喻上帝如一位農民撒種在土地上,僅是他要建立神的王國繁榮。

古代的猶太人感覺他們是被不公平的評審,他們被懲罰乃是為祖先的罪,他們是無罪的。這俗語(v. 29) 繼續重複在以西結第十八章第二節記載‘你們在以色列地怎麼用這俗語說、父親喫了酸葡萄、兒子的牙酸倒了呢。’子民 埋怨他人,但以色列的主是正 義的上帝。祂審判子民個人或群體的罪,但如果子民有認罪的責任,上帝也將準備赦免他們的罪。祂是一位充滿了恩愛、憐憫我們認罪悔改的上帝。

 

靈修版p.1315解經:以色列人自以為是父罪罰其子?百姓想將自己的罪推卸到祖宗的頭上,並怪上帝的審判。一個人犯罪的確會影響別人,但我們應該要為自己犯的罪在自己的生存上向上帝負責。〈請看申命記24:16;以西結18:2

C 新的約:耶利米31:31-34                        31   耶和華說、日子將到、我要與以色列家和猶大家、另立新約。

32 不像我拉著他們祖宗的手、領他們出埃及地的時候、與他們所立的約.我雖作他們的丈夫、他們卻背了我的約.這是耶和華說的。

33 耶和華說、那些日子以後、我與以色列家所立的約、乃是這樣.我要將我的律法放在他們裡面、寫在他們心上.我要作他們的 神、他們要作我的子民。

34他們各人不再教導自己的鄰舍、和自己的弟兄、說、你該認識耶和華.因為他們從最小的、到至大的、都必認識我.我要赦免他們的罪孽、不再記念他們的罪惡.這是耶和華說的。

過去上帝頒佈十誡時是將律法寫在石版上,但祂希望人們銘記在心。在十七章一節中提到猷大人的罪已烙印在他們心中,但他們不順服上帝,所以上帝今次將祂的律法寫在他們的心版上,使他們重穫新生。我們把生命交給上帝,上帝也會將聖靈放在我們的心中,使我們得新生命而服從她。

 

 

百姓背棄了舊的盟約,所以上帝另立新約取而代之。新約是建基於基督的 (8:6) 這不但震撼了猶大國以色列,而且讓我們外邦人震驚。新約的律法不再寫在石版上,而是寫在每人的心堙A讓人可以和上帝建立一個獨特而個人的親密關係。耶利米盼望主耶穌來立新約的那一天,而今日的我們已經有了這個新約,就是說我們有福氣從新開始,與上帝建立一個永久的個人關係。(29:11; 32:38-40). – 靈修版解經p.1315

問題請讀耶利米三十一章31-34, 並討論以下問題:

1. 人們在什麼方式下與上帝的盟約破壞了呢? (拜偶像、人與人的關係破壞)

2.在什麼方式下新盟約看來與舊盟約不同或與上帝的最早盟約相同呢? (最早的舊約是上帝給人們律法,新盟約來了乃是經過相信上帝的聖子耶穌基督為我們的罪而獻上活祭。)

 

D. 結論

舊約時,上帝嚴格的希望子民服從律法。舊約時,上帝應許赦罪那些心裡、生活上都轉向祂的人;耶穌基督是新約的中保,也是祂死在十字架的基要應許。

 

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